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List of Sources

The sources canvassed to date, alphabetized by abbreviation, include:

ACorv = Annals of Corvey, MGH SS 3, ed. G. H. Pertz (Hannover, 1849).

AFuld = Annals of Fulda, trans. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1992).

AHild = Annals of Hildesheim, MGH SS rer. Germ 8ed. G. Waitz (Hannover, 1878).

AIC = The Anonymous Imperial Chronicle, trans. T. J. H. McCarthy, in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest: Frutolf of Michelsberg and his Continuators (Manchester, 2014).

ANA = Annals of Niederaltaich, MGH SS rer. Germ 4ed. G. H. Pertz (Hannover, 1868).

ASB = Annals of St. Bertin, trans. J. Nelson (Manchester, 1991).

AQued = Annals of Quedlinburg, MGH SS rer. Germ 72, ed. M. Giese (Hannover, 2004).

AXant = Annals of Xanten, MGH SS rer. Germ 12, ed. B. von Simson (Hannover, 1909).

Cont Reg = Adalbert's Continuation of the Chronicle of Regino of Prüm, trans. Simon MacLean, in History and Politics in Late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe (Manchester, 2009).

Cos = Cosmas of Prague, Chronicle of the Czechs, trans. Lisa Wolverton (Washington, D.C., 2009).

Ekk = Ekkehard of Aura, Chronicle, trans. T. J. H. McCarthy, in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest: Frutolf of Michelsberg and his Continuators (Manchester, 2014).

Herm = Herman of Reichenau, Chronicle, trans. I. S. Robinson, in Eleventh-Century Germany: The Swabian Chronicles (Manchester, 2008).

Fru = Frutolf of Michelsberg, Chronicle, trans. T. J. H. McCarthy, in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest: Frutolf of Michelsberg and his Continuators (Manchester, 2014).

Lamp = Lampert of Hersfeld, Annales, ed. O. Holder-Egger and W. D. Fritz (Berlin, 1957); also, ISR = ​​​​​​The Annals of Lampert of Hersfeld, trans. I. S. Robinson (Manchester, 2015).

Moiss =  Chronicle of Moissac, ed. David Claszen and J.M.J.G. Katz, “Chronicon Moissiacense Maius: A Carolingian World Chronicle from Creation until the First Years of Louis the Pious” MA thesis, Leiden University, 2012.

RFA = Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B.W. Sholz, in Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard’s Histories (Ann Arbor, 1970).

RRFA = Revised Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B.W. Sholz, in Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard’s Histories (Ann Arbor, 1970).

Thie = Thietmar of Merseburg, Chronicon, trans. David Warner, Ottonian Germany (Manchester, 2001).

Wid = Widukind of Corvey, Deeds of the Saxons, trans. Bernard Bachrach and David Bachrach (Washington, D.C., 2014).