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782. In the meantime the king was informed that the Slavonic Sorbs, who inhabit the plains between the Elbe and the Saale, had entered the neighboring territories of Saxons and Thuringians to pillage, and by looting and burning had ravaged several places.1
789. From Aachen a campaign was launched with the help of God into the land of the Slavs who are called Wilzi. On the advice of Franks and Saxons [Charlemagne] crossed the Rhine at Cologne, advanced through Saxony, reached the River Elbe, and had two bridges constructed, on one of which he built fortifications of wood and earth at both ends. From there he advanced further and by the gift of God subjected the Slavs to his authority. Both Franks and Saxons were with him in this army. In addition, the Frisians joined him by ship, on the River Havel, along with some Franks. He also had with him the Slavs called Sorbs and Abodrites, whose chieftain was Witzin.2
806. After a few days [Charlemagne] came from Nijmegen to Aachen and sent his son Charles with an army into the country of the Slavs who are called Sorbs and live on the River Elbe. On this campaign Miliduoch, duke of the Slavs, was killed. The army constructed two castles, one on the bank of the River Saale, the other one on the Elbe. When the Slavs had been pacified, Charles returned with the army and came to the emperor at Seilles on the Meuse.3
816. When the winter was over Saxons and East Franks were ordered to campaign against the Slavonic Sorbs who refused obedience. They carried out their orders energetically and without much effort suppressed the insolence of the rebels. As soon as a city had been captured, rebellious elements of the population promised submission and calmed down.4
839. Two expeditions were mounted: a Saxon one against the attacks of the Sorbs and Wilzi who had recently left several villae of the Saxon March in flames; and a combined Austrasian-Thuringian one against the rebellious Abodrites and the people called the Linones ... Meanwhile the Saxons fought a battle at Kesigesburg against those Sorbs who are called the Colodici and thanks to heavenly help won the victory. The Sorbian king Czimislav was killed and Kesigesburg and eleven forts were captured. Another king was hurriedly made amidst all these upheavals, and oaths were taken from him and hostages too, and much of their land was confiscated.5
851. The Sorbs violated the Frankish border with frequent attacks and incendiary raids. The king, angry at this, proceeded through Thuringia with an army, invaded their territory and oppressed them severely.6
858. Louis... returned to Frankfurt, and, after he had discussed and dealt with many things of importance for the kingdom with his men, decided that three armies should be sent to different frontiers of his kingdom. The first, under Carloman his eldest son, he sent against the Moravian Slavs and Rastiz; a second under Louis, his younger son, against the Abodrites and Linones; the third was sent under Thaculf against the Sorbs who refused to obey his commands.7
869. The Sorbs and Siusli joined with the Bohemians and the other peoples of the region and crossed the old Thuringian border.8
874. The Sorbs and the Siusli and their neighbors rebelled on the death of Thaculf. Archbishop Liutbert [of Mainz] and Ratolf, Thaculf’s successor, crossed the River Saale in January and by pillaging and burning crushed their insolence without battle and reduced them to their further servility.9
880. The Slavs called Daleminzi, the Bohemians, and the Sorbs and the other tribes in the neighbourhood, when they heard of the slaughter of the Saxons by the Northmen, came together and threatened to invade the lands of the Thuringians, and attacked the Slavs around the Saale faithful to the Thuringians with plunder and burning. Count Poppo, dux of the Sorbian march, came against them with the Thuringians, and with God's help so defeated them that not one out of a great multitude remained.10